Skip to main content
Multicultural high school classroom with active discussion groups


Reading isn’t really reading if students don’t understand what they have read. Many struggling adolescent readers can recognize and pronounce words from print, but cannot understand or answer questions about what they have just read. This section includes information on methods to improve students’ comprehension.

Multicultural middle school students discussing a text

Shanahan on Literacy

Think-Pair-Share in Reading Instruction: Is It Effective?

When kids get the opportunity to discuss something with a partner before responding to a teacher question, positive outcomes have been seen in the primary grades in reading and in the upper grades with second-language learners.