Skip to main content

U.S. Department of Education

Articles by this author


Direct, Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction

Comprehension strategies are routines and procedures that readers use to help them make sense of texts. Struggling adolescent readers need direct, explicit instruction in comprehension strategies to improve their reading comprehension.
Two middle school students working at white board


Explicit Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary instruction is an important part of English language arts classes, as well as content area classes such as science and social studies.

About Teaching Reading

Extended Discussion of Text Meaning and Interpretation

Teachers should provide opportunities for students to engage in high-quality discussions of the meaning and interpretation of texts in various content areas as one important way to improve their reading comprehension.


Intensive, Individualized Interventions for Struggling Readers

Because the cause of adolescents’ difficulties in reading vary, interventions may focus on any of the critical elements of knowledge and skill required for the comprehension of complex texts, including fundamental skills such as phonemic awareness, phonem

About Teaching Reading

Recommendations for Improving Adolescent Literacy

In its practice guide Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices, the Dept. of Education offers five recommendations for increasing the reading ability of adolescents.

Motivation and Engagement

Student Motivation and Engagement in Literacy Learning

Teachers can help students build confidence in their ability to comprehend content-area texts, by providing a supportive environment and offering information on how reading strategies can be modified to fit various tasks.

Tutoring & Volunteering

Tips for Reading Tutors

The U.S. Department of Education developed this brief guide for reading tutors. It lists ways that tutoring helps both the learner and the tutor, and provides practical tips that can help tutors be more effective in their work.