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Multicultural group of middle school kids in class discussing project

Classroom Strategies

Browse our library of “before, during, and after reading” strategies for vocabulary, comprehension, and writing instruction.

Explicit strategy instruction is at the core of good vocabulary, comprehension, and writing instruction.

Before” strategies activate students’ prior knowledge and set a purpose for reading and writing. “During” strategies help students make connections, monitor their understanding, generate questions, and stay focused. “After” strategies provide students an opportunity to summarize, question, reflect, discuss, and respond to text.

Teachers should help students to understand why a strategy is useful, how it is used, and when it is appropriate. Teacher demonstration and modeling are critical factors for success, and student discussion following strategy instruction is also helpful.

These research-based strategies can be applied across content areas.

Before Reading






During Reading