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Black teacher working with Latino high school student on reading
Blog: Shanahan on Literacy

I'm a High School Reading Resource Teacher. What Should I Do?

For those kids who need basic decoding instruction, targeted interventions are important. But for the others, teach reading using the books those students need to read in their other classes. That approach simultaneously builds reading skills, improves content learning, and increases academic confidence.

Blog: Shanahan on Literacy

How to Improve Text Fluency in the Middle Schools and High Schools

Schools should provide students with up to 30 minutes a day of fluency instruction. But remember, this is across all classes and content areas. Get quick tips on paired reading, repeated reading, and other ways to improve reading fluency.

African American teacher and student sit at desks to discuss school work
Blog: Shanahan on Literacy

My Middle School Requires Fluency Instruction: Help!

It is sensible to teach text reading fluency to middle schoolers (and high schoolers) class wide, and I’ve worked with more than 100 secondary schools that did this so successfully that it helped raise their reading achievement.
Blog: Shanahan on Literacy

Round Robin by Any Other Name ... Oral Reading for Older Readers

While I encourage, and even require, oral reading instruction in middle schools, I don’t countenance round robin. Engage your kids in paired reading and they’ll get much more oral reading practice than in the round robin approach.