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Key Literacy Component: Decoding

Decoding is the ability to correctly decipher and identify a word from a string of letters. Students who struggle with decoding are at a disadvantage, but explicit instruction can help them learn this skill.

Key Literacy Component: Morphology

Morphology describes how words are formed from building blocks called morphemes, the smallest unit of meaning in a word. Students who don’t understand this structure have trouble recognizing, understanding, and spelling words. Find out how proper instruction can help them learn this key skill.
ELL students working together in classroom

Phonics Instruction for Middle and High School ELLs

While it may seem the most expedient solution, it is not appropriate to put an older ELL student in a lower grade to receive the appropriate reading instruction. Age-appropriate activities integrated with academic content give older students the opportunity to make progress as readers.

two middle school students reading a class text together

Root Words, Roots and Affixes

Familiarity with Greek and Latin roots, as well as prefixes and suffixes, can help students understand the meaning of new words. This article includes many of the most common examples.

Spelling Supports Reading

Many readers are puzzled by the rules and exceptions of spelling. Research has shown, however, that learning to spell and learning to read rely on much of the same underlying knowledge. Read this article to learn more about the relationships between letters and sounds, and how a proper understanding of spelling mechanics can lead to improved reading.
High school student struggling with reading

When Older Students Can't Read

At any age, poor readers as a group exhibit weaknesses in phonological processing and word recognition speed and accuracy. When a student’s reading comprehension is more impaired than their listening comprehension, inaccurate and slow word recognition is the most likely cause.