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Understanding Craft and Structure, Part 1

History teacher Johanna Heppeler guides her students through a process of "sourcing a document," which includes looking at the speaker, the occasion, the audience, the purpose and the tone.
Grade 11 | History | Common Core Standards: RI.11-12 and RH.11-12
Teacher: Johanna Heppeler, East Leyden HS, Franklin Park, IL

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, history teacher Johanna Heppeler guides her students through a process of “sourcing a document,” which includes a consideration of the speaker, the occasion, the audience, the purpose and the tone. By helping her students situate Lincoln’s speeches in time and place, she helps them contextualize and understand Lincoln’s word choices and the structure of each speech. Ms. Heppeler uses a variety of multimedia resources to support her objectives, including political cartoons and maps. Ms. Heppeler models a way to annotate text.

Things to watch for:

  • Ms. Heppeler modeling strategies and thinking she is working to teach her students
  • A focus on specific word choices as a way to analyze overall meaning and tone
  • The use of multimedia resources that support learning objectives
  • Ms. Heppeler modeling how to annotate a text as a way to extend understanding

More classroom videos with Johanna Heppeler:

Alignment to Common Core Standards

Reading Standards for Informational Text 11-12

Key Ideas and Details

  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.1)

Craft and Structure

  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10). (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.4)

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.7)

History/Social Studies Standards 11-12

Key Ideas and Details

  • Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.1)
  • Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2)

Craft and Structure

  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10). (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.4)

Teacher Reflection

What the Experts Say

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