All About Adolescent Literacy

All about adolescent literacy. Resources for parents and educators of kids in grades 4-12.
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Adolescent Literacy Glossary

Adequate Yearly Progress, Small Learning Communities, Explicit Instruction — do you know what these phrases mean? Find these and other commonly used terms related to reading, literacy, and reading instruction in our glossary.

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P-16 and P-20 Councils

State coordinating councils created to align the standards of primary schools (preschool through Grade 12) with postsecondary (college, years 13-16) requirements, and link to workplace success after college graduation (years 17-20). The goal of these councils is to ensure a seamless educational process for students as they move from one level to the next, and prepare them for success after graduation.

Peer Mentoring

An arrangement in which an older youth (mentor) provides a younger student with support and/or tutoring in a one-on-one relationship. The mentor serves as a role model for a younger student who needs help.

Phoneme

The smallest unit of speech that serves to distinguish one utterance from another in a language.

Phonemic Awareness

The ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. For example, beginning readers display phonemic awareness by combining or blending the separate sounds of a word to say the word (/c/ /a/ /t/ – cat).

Phonics

A form of instruction to cultivate the understanding and use of the alphabetic principle; that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds in spoken language) and graphemes, the letters that represent those sounds in written language, and that this information can be used to read or decode words.

Phonological Awareness

A range of understandings related to the sounds of words and word parts, including identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language such as words, syllables, and onset and rime. It also includes phonemic awareness as well as other aspects of spoken language such as rhyming and syllabication.

Placement Assessment

An assessment used to determine the most appropriate academic placement (grade level, setting, and special services) for an individual student.

Plateau Effect

This occurs when teaching methods that have formerly helped a student learn and progress are no longer effective. The child’s upward learning curve “flattens out”(reaches a plateau).

Portfolio Assessment

A systematic collection of a variety of teacher observations and a student's work, collected over time, that reflect growth of the student’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific subject area. Portfolios can be print-based or digital.

Print Awareness

The understanding that written language contains information and is related to oral language. This connection motivates and directs readers.


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