Adolescent Literacy Glossary
Adequate Yearly Progress, Small Learning Communities, Explicit Instruction do you know what these phrases mean? Find these and other commonly used terms related to reading, literacy, and reading instruction in our glossary.
The English language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. This is sometimes referred to as Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP).
Techniques, tools, technology, and materials that allow individuals with LD to complete school or work tasks with greater ease and effectiveness. Examples include spellcheckers, tape recorders, and extended time for completing assignments and tests.
The ability to recognize words correctly when reading.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
An individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards. Adequate Yearly Progress is the minimum level of improvement that states, school districts and public schools must achieve each year according to the No Child Left Behind Act.
The part of a word that is "fixed to" either the beginning of the word (prefix) or the ending of the word (suffix). For example, the word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix (dis-) and a suffix (-ful).
Age Equivalent Score
In a norm-referenced assessment, individual students' scores are reported relative to those of the norming population. This can be done in a variety of ways, but one way is to report the average age of people who received the same score as the individual child. Thus, an individual child's score is described as being the same as students that are younger, the same age, or older than that student (e.g., a nine-year-old student my receive the same score that an average 13-year-old student does, suggesting that this student is quite advanced).
The basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words.
Analogical Problem Solving
A problem solving approach that involves remembering a similar (or analogous) problem that was solved previously and applying the solution to the current problem.
The process of identifying a student’s knowledge, strengths and needs to assist in determining student placement, instructional delivery, and need for interventions. There are several types of assessments that serve different purposes; to learn more see formal assessment, formative assessment, placement assessment, portfolio assessment, and summative assessment.
A device, piece of equipment or system that helps bypass, work around or compensate for an individual's specific learning disabilities.
Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A neurobehavioral disorder that causes an individual to be inattentive or hperactive/impulsive, or to display a combination of those symptoms.
The ability to identify the differences between spoken words and sounds that are similar.
The ability to understand spoken language.
Authentic assessment presents students with real-world challenges that require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge. Authentic assessments are typically criterion-referenced rather than norm-referenced; such evaluation identifies strengths and weaknesses, but does not compare or rank students. Students are asked to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, or competencies in whatever way they find appropriate.
Automaticity is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex skill that can be performed automatically and with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness. With practice and good instruction, students become automatic at word recognition and decoding, and are able to focus attention on constructing meaning from the text.