All About Adolescent Literacy

All about adolescent literacy. Resources for parents and educators of kids in grades 4-12.
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Gender & Diversity Issues

Articles in this section examine how differences among various subgroups of students — boys, girls, students of color, socioeconomic statuses — may impact learning style and achievement.


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Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

Vanneman, A., Hamilton, L., Baldwin Anderson, J., and Rahman, T. (2009). Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, (NCES 2009-455). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.

In 2007, reading scores for both Black and White public school students in grades 4 and 8 nationwide, as measured by the main assessments of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), were higher than in any previous assessment, going back to 1990. White students, however, had higher scores than Black students, on average. This report uses results from both the main NAEP and the long-term trend NAEP assessments to examine the Black-White achievement gaps, and changes in those gaps, at the national and state levels. This report provides detailed information on the size of the achievement gaps between Black and White students at both the national and state levels and how those achievement gaps have changed over time.

Slow and Uneven Progress in Narrowing Gaps

Center on Education Policy. (2010). Slow and uneven progress in narrowing gaps. Washington, DC: Author.

This report provides a detailed look at student performance on state tests and examines whether state-level results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) confirm the trends found on state tests. The report tracks data for all states and the District of Columbia in math and reading for grades 4, 8, and high school by student race, ethnicity, income, and gender from as early as 2002 through 2009, where three or more years of comparable data are available.

The report's comparison of the direction of trends on NAEP and state tests between 2005 and 2009 at grades 4 and 8 presents a mixed picture. In a majority of the states studied, NAEP results confirm gains in reading and math for most subgroups. But trends in achievement gaps on NAEP differ often enough from gap trends on state tests to raise caution about how consistently gaps are narrowing.

When Girls Don't Graduate We All Fail

National Women's Law Center. (2007). When Girls Don't Graduate We All Fail: A call to improve high school graduation rates for girls. Retrieved from http://www.nwlc.org/pdf/dropoutreport.pdf.

When girls drop out of high school, their earnings drop dramatically lower than those of women who have diplomas, or even of male drop outs. Also they are more likely to need government services, such as medical care. Who are these girls, why are they leaving high school, and what can be done to support them through finishing their education?


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